## Rigorous Proof

The method of trying to prove that all triangles add up to 180 degrees only works on 2D surfaces and can be proved with axioms. On 2D surfaces, the proof can be said as rigorous proof because it can’t be falsified, it has been tested a lot and is known as shared knowledge. The other methods can be falsified as if you draw a triangle on a sphere the angles would not add up to 180 and therefore is falsified.

SHIP → DOCK

Changing one letter from the word ship and trying to get to the word dock would be easier if you knew that all words in the english language contain a vowel, and the conjecture that any intermediate word would have two vowels. The rigorous proof demonstrates the outcome that is expected through steps in a logical manner. With the axioms, it made the task easier to do as we believed in them.

The term proof applies differently to Math and Natural Sciences, evidence is used to prove a conjecture or theory and it can make something more true to people as they would believe it more.

Math that can be found in Nature:

Snowflakes, it has the perfect symmetry and all snowflakes are different. Sunflowers also follow the Fibonacci sequence and the nautilus shell also follows the Fibonacci sequence.

## Boxing – First session

This is my first time taking a class in boxing, i chose it since i’ve been wanting to do it for a while, however put it off as it was a risk for me at the time. I wanted to step out of my comfort zone and try something new and i really enjoyed the first session. We worked on our forms, the basic punches and how to properly stand. Even though it was the first session I really liked the class and how it made me feel. It is also a good form of exercise as it helps with getting your heart rate up and it also is fun at the same time. As the sessions went on, i think it got more interesting and fun to participate in and also got me more tired. I am looking forward to going to more classes and I think I might continue boxing for season 3 and 4 depending on my schedule.

## Lion befrienders- going to the centre

Our service went to the centre for the first time and we learnt a lot about the place and about the people there. We listened to the leader speak about lion befrienders and how we can help. It was interesting to know what they like as it can help us gauge what to do to have the most fun and to bond with the people there. We also met some of the elderly and played ‘chinese whispers’ with them, and enjoyed it a lot.

As this service went on throughout the years, we had been planning the same things such as bingo or darts as we know it works and that they like it, however we think that we should try something different as we think that they might get bored with the things we always do. We think something like dancing or karaoke would be fun for all of us and it would be different to what we usually do. We have lessons in school to plan for many activities and back up plans, and along the way we will learn what works and what doesn’t work.

There is a language barrier between some of us and the elderly however we can overcome it as the people who can speak english can help us translate and we think that we don’t need to speak the same language to bond over something. We think the activities planned will be fun and will work with helping the elderly enjoy their time.

I am chair along with David, and together we will try to set attainable goals that our service can do if we all try together. We just started, so it will take a while to get used to, however I am looking forward to managing and playing games and bonding with the elderly that is part of lion befrienders.

## How we “know” and with what “certainty” differs across areas of knowledge.

There are different areas of knowledge that can explain different things with different levels of uncertainty. The certainty of knowledge from natural sciences is higher as people have faith in scientists who have supported a theory through a lot of observation as they’ve noticed a pattern and many experiments with evidence to support their theory, and many others who have gotten the same results. When they get the same results people begin to believe it and “know” of it as being the truth. People trust them as they have a higher authority and can provide answers that the general can agree with. The certainty could be considered greater than religion as there is more evidence to support the scientific theories, but people can still “know” through religion because of their beliefs and their faith even if there is less evidence to support it. Another way of knowing is with history. People “know” as there is a lot of evidence and justification behind it. There is also technology helping us with understanding what has happened in the past, like fossils or photographs. We can not be certain of things that were in the past as there might not be an explanation or too much evidence behind it. People also have different perspectives and can view the things that have happened in different ways, so the knowledge about one thing that we hold may not all be the same. We can ‘know’ the same thing but may have different reasons to why we know them, some may have a stronger reasoning however not everyone can agree on the same thing and can have their own personal judgement. But we can not be “certain” about anything.

## Empathy

UFO sighting

Navy spokesman Joseph Gradisher has confirmed that three videos posted to the To the Stars Academy of Arts and Sciences (TTSA)— the organization founded by Blink 182 rocker Tom DeLonge in 2015 to pursue research into UFOs and extraterrestrial life — do indeed show “unidentified aerial phenomena.”

I am empathic towards this, even though it seems as if there is nothing to care about, there is. The article was very interesting to me as there has been a lot of supposed UFO sightings than always has a reason to not be a UFO such as, “it’s a government plane”. I think that it’s arrogant to think that we are the only living things in the universe, as it is very big, bigger than we can comprehend, it is almost impossible, in my mind, that we are the only ones out there. I think there are a lot of people that would disagree with the Blink 182 band member, as that is their belief and not try to understand where he’s coming from, as they might have a different explanation to the videos posted even if a higher authority says that it is unidentified. There are a lot of things that can’t be explained and aliens isn’t something that is confirmed, but it hasn’t been debunked which I understand.

Applying the notion of outrospection to it, a lot of people must be disagreeing with Tom DeLonge’s views as they might not see where he is coming from and the evidence that supports him. They might think it’s silly that a band member has an organization, Stars Academy of Arts and Sciences (TTSA), and might not believe him since he is a band member. However I understand that a lot of things haven’t been discovered, but I think that anyone could discover it but people would only trust others that have an authority or have power and have been proven to be right by other things they have done, such as scientists. But I am able to see why people believe in things such as UFOs as there is something that we don’t know about, and are curious to find out more.

## I changed my thinking and it changed my life!

I admire people who can empathize as it helps me when people do this, and I know it can help others. I also admire people who can understand other people’s feelings and is respectful to people’s opinions and perspectives. As well as a good listener and is very patient. I dislike people who are selfish, critical,  does not take into consideration other people’s feelings and opinions, egotistical and who can’t empathize.

I want to understand people’s feelings better as it can help improve relationships and I want to avoid being egotistical because it doesn’t help you or anyone.

This year, I would like to develop the skill/quality of being patient and understanding other people’s feelings. This is important to me because I think it is an important still to have. This will help me develop my relationships and make them better. It will also help me not get angry all the time and control my emotions by being patient. This will help others feel like they can express what they feel around me and that I can help them as much as I can.

I dislike that I am impatient. I see this in myself as I get angry at little things. This bothers me because it affects the people around me as I can snap at any moment and I feel bad right after but I still do it because I’ve grown accustomed to it. I can overcome this by trying to not snap at everything by thinking about what I am going to say first, this will improve my relationships and my happiness. I think this will help me become an overall better person and people may respect the skill if I had it.

## Lion Befrienders – Service

I have done this service last year and I thought it was a great experience so I decided to do it again this year, however it is a bigger commitment as last year we only had to do in Season 1-2 but now we have to do it for the whole year. I think this will also be a good experience as the elderly are from a new place this year, so we get to meet and play with new people.

Their vision “A nation where every senior is active, healthy and happy” and their mission is “To provide friendship and care for seniors to age in place with community participation, enabling them to enjoy meaningful and enriching lives”. I think we can work towards this mission and definitely provide friendships and make the most out of the time we are there, to built our relationship and make them happy.

## ALIS Test

The ALIS test could potentially predict what your IB score could be based on the people who have scored the same on the test however I think that there are many other factors that contribute to your grade, like ability and how much we study. ALIS only tested a specific part of our intelligence and not related to our subjects, so it can’t really predict what we would score but can give a good range of what you may get. A student could improve or even slack off after the test so their score won’t be the same as the ALIS one.

I think that if we were to find out our predicted it might influence the way we behave or how well we do in the subject. If it was a low score some students may be keen to get better to improve their score or they might not try at all because they think they’re going to get a low score anyways so there’s no point. If it was a high score students could get over confident and not do as well in their actual exams.

## Representation

Texts can represent the stereotypes of different groups although I think it can never fully represent a group unless the author is part of the group. However I think people need to realise that it is not real, that it is text that someone wrote, for example ‘Crazy Rich Asians’, people were upset that It didn’t include all Asians, other than Chinese people. I think people should take in account the story of the movie, how it’s centred around a Singaporean Chinese family, many of people get offended over small things and it is hard to satisfy everyone reading a text. The people who had a problem with this the most are the Asians who didn’t get represented in the movie, to which I don’t think it was the author’s intentions. Since the movie is centred around a Chinese family, I think the author chose to include more Chinese people and he wasn’t trying to exclude anyone. However, it could pose as a inconvenience as people who are not part of the culture may believe that in SIngapore that is how it is, but they should realise that it is just a movie and it is made for entertainment and is not trying to explain the situation of Singapore. I think that a lot of text can represent a stereotype of that group or even what the author knows and thinks about that group, so the text is true to them, but maybe not someone else. Overall I think that texts can represent groups of people to those who agree with the text whether it be true or false, I think that many can not have the same understanding of all the different groups.

I think identity can play a role in how we understand texts as if there is something in the text that we can relate to, it might be easier to understand what the author was trying to say. I think that if you don’t identify with a piece of text it can make it harder to understand what is written or portrayed as it doesn’t affect you. A text could also be relatable to a small group of people but it can help others learn about that group or how the author represents that group.

## Replication and Falsification

People thinking the earth was in the centre of the solar system is falsification as it was proven wrong, but now we believe that the sun is in the centre and that all the planets revolve around it, we believe this to be true because of the evidence we have found through tests and observations, however in the future this could be proven false through advanced technology or more observations.

Plants growing towards the sun could be replication, as the theory could be tested and observed many times to come to the conclusion and the test can be replicated. We believe this because everytime the test is performed we get the same answers.