Reflective Conversation 2

From here, I need to clarify and rearrange some areas of my essay as given in my supervisor’s feedback. However, my approach to the EE has changed significantly, given the depth and complexity of the research question – I have to ensure I take a step back while I’m writing it instead of always being so close. I’ve realized that instead of doing the majority of it in one sitting, given that it’s easier to follow my thinking while writing, it’s actually better to do it in chunks over an extended period of time. This is because, after a break, I can reread my essay and look at it holistically to identify areas of confusion, and in this time I can reevaluate areas of my essay and strongly establish my understanding before returning to writing. I will also try to get friends/family with no prior knowledge of the topic to read it so I can identify areas requiring further clarification.




Completing my EE first submission

Completing my analysis and conclusion for the essay was definitely the most difficult, as such I left them for about a month before returning to the essay. I feel that having summer during this time was great, because the subject of philosophy itself does not let me easily find an “answer” to a question by forcing myself to think. Rather I took the month to keep coming back to the topic and thinking about it without pressure and restraints. I found that over the month I could better develop my thinking and get my head around the topic enough to even identify my own flaws with Frankfurt’s and Kane-Widerker’s claims. For example, how the refute to Frankfurt’s argument only focuses on the cases itself, and that other areas could be focused on to make it still viable all followed my own independent thinking.

Furthermore, I came to many analysis’ myself but I would start writing and dig deeper only to realise there was a flaw with my own thinking. As such I probably attempted to start my paragraph several times before finally I could be confident in the ideas I was putting forth.

This has really shown me more why I love the subject of philosophy, and that is because it is so easy to get fully engaged into it, and once you do it gets so exciting. Especially when you feel you have identified a flaw or problem or solution, and must dive deeper into it.

Additionally, I really wanted my essay to be about more than a small sub-clause, as after writing everything I understood the significance, but even in the beginning when I finalised the essay question – I felt it was so small and any conclusion I would make would have no real implications. But really discovering how large it was, how such a small conflict of ideas actually has such large implementations allowed me to share that in my essay. I wanted to bring someone along the thinking of something so minuscule in the greater scheme of things and connect it to something bigger than life. This being that the idea of God and Human Free Will inevitably effects everyone and everything whether they believe in it or not. In that sentence, I love where all the thinking took me.

As such I ended up adding another paragraph relating the conclusions and analysis of my thinking into something relevant and an issue of worldwide importance. There, I discussed a topic that I had even initially wanted my essay to be based around but was too large – which is the Problem of Evil (considering I have a lot of interest in it). I love that I know this topic was too large to tackle in an EE, yet through my small focused EE I managed to find answers to even these large questions.

Finally I wanted my conclusion to wrap up not only my topic question but the ideas of philosophy as a whole and why they are still important even in this age of scientific discovery.

Overall, I know my draft isn’t perfect and hopefully with the feedback I receive I can greatly improve it, but I am quite happy with my essay so far – if how it comes across isn’t the best, I’m still proud of my own thinking and what I’ve personally discovered about the topic and about myself.

Final PSE Reflection

Some challenges I felt this year were:

  • New subjects such as computer science meaning a steep learning curve
  • Projects are student-led and not given support
  • Heavy workload
  • Project Week
  • Minds Service

Some other experiences were:

  • Kahaani
  • Culturama
  • Pottery
  • Softball
  • MuayThai
  • BodyPump

Something that went well was Project Week, what helped me was the support that I received from my friends and by having them around me all the time. Also, was being flexible to change day-to-day and in the planning stage, whilst staying optimistic to approach these changes. Finally, being organized was necessary to get things done.

What I could have done differently would be surrounding the workload, this means not slacking and leaving things to the last moment because I don’t want to necessarily do them. And also to study a little bit every day so I don’t need to grind and memorize information the day before. Finally is really paying attention to my mental health because by letting it get worse affects my grades because I don’t care about work anymore. Also not putting school about my mental health and not going to counseling or such simply because I’m “busy” I think is a big takeaway from this year to do next year.

For grade 12 I want to better look after myself and be more organized with work. This means I want to study a little bit every day so I am not stressed when exams roll around. Also, I want to make use of my summer to do as much IA plannings and EE writing as I can, as well as working on my TOK presentation early. Overall, I want to pace myself so I never have a huge workload but do a little bit each day which is much better – it just means I definitely need to stay organized and on top of things each day which can be a struggle. Also, pushing myself to do Culturama and Kahaani next year, because I love both events but I’m scared the stress will get in the way – but I know it’ll be something I can enjoy and look forward to in school.

Overall, I think this year went well and I’m already integrated into IB and the flow of it, so hopefully I don’t let that die over summer and come back with everything on my shoulders.

Mass Media and Communications FOA Reflection


The IB FOA is a very individual project, where there are no instructions except for the given topic studied in class being Mass Media and Communications. From here, we have the freedom to create a presentation surrounding any topic we want with no guidance to what to talk about or what to cover.

I started by going through all of the grading criteria and all the sub-topics of Mass media we had covered in doing so I made myself many points in order to ensure I covered all aspects of the FOA I needed. For example, this meant going on IB websites and any other online resources; I made note of the learning outcomes and assessment objectives.


I spent a lot of time on my research, and I watched all of the 4 videos taking notes and taking screenshots. I feel I went about it really well, considering I had already created an outline for myself and highlighted aspect I needed to ensure I included in my presentation. This was helpful as when I watched the videos and did research, there was a lot of content – however, knowing what I was looking for put that into context for myself so I knew what to look for and what angle I needed to look at it.

I will definitely use this in the future, as I don’t like going into projects blind. I love having a lot of room for creativity – but this can often lead astray and become too long and too broad. Giving myself a structure initially and a purpose allows me to stay focused and keep everything within the lines.

Furthermore, at first, I was not going to go with this topic, but rather about Instagram and other ideas. However, with all the drama going around on James Charles, I was watching these hour-long videos in my free-time and felt I was wasting my time when I should have been working on my FOA. Then I realized, I could turn that feeling I was wasting my time into actually watching those videos as “study” and I found a huge loophole. It was not only very relevant, but I was really interested in it considering drama is always interesting to read… and that meant I would put a lot more effort into it considering I wanted to learn about it anyways.

I thought this was great because it was relevant to current media, part of teen culture, spread mass media and was about unique communications. Overall, this has shown me that school work can be fun, and it doesn’t work anymore when you chose a topic you’re actually interested in rather than doing what you think would get you a good grade.

EE Day Reflection

One Thing I’ve Learnt:

My supervisor helped me to go through the outline I’ve created and figure out where I should be focusing on, as currently, I am aware that if I were to write out my entire essay depicting my outline – it would exceed the word count. So it’s been important to bring to my attention where I should be focusing on, and that it is more important for me to cover fewer arguments but more in-depth and clear than to attempt to cover many of them but briefly. This given that philosophy is not a light subject and although I may understand what I write about (considering I’ve gotten to read up a lot on it) – it doesn’t mean if someone else comes along and reads it that they will be able to understand. For this reason, I’ve cut out quite a bit of my outline (the first argument to Frankfurt’s cases and possibly one of the rebuttals to such) to try focus on key points I want to make, and ensure that with those points I am giving thorough explanations.

What I’m Proud of:

I’m proud of how much work I’ve put in so far, as I already have my outline completed written up to the minor details – which I didn’t realize many of my friends had not started yet. Therefore, I feel comfortable knowing that I’m slightly ahead and this will hopefully be less stressful as I need to dedicate a lot of time to reading and researching – which I’m scared could lead me to fall behind in any way. Furthermore, today I’ve completed the table of contents which is useful for me to organize my own thinking and writing, and have completed 660 words of my essay including the initial introduction and explanation of theological fatalism.

What I’ll be Doing Next:

From here, I would like to begin reading the book which my supervisor recommended and gave me as it covers my topic perfectly, and I need to proceed doing much more research specifically on the Two-Horned Dilemma. On top of all of this, I will continue to be writing my essay – and meet the deadline of 1000 words in a few weeks which I don’t think will be too hard! 🙂

EE Progress (as of April)



Submitted Topic Idea:

Addressing the paradox of free-will within the doctrine of predestination, how is god arguably guilty for mans sin?

Reason for Choosing This:

Philosophy would by far be my biggest interest and my favorite subject. I study it out of school all the time just purely reading books and online because I find it all so fascinating. Therefore, I would love to use this opportunity to dive deeper into this aspect of it – because despite not being very religious, I’ve always loved the arguments made about god. Because there are countless theories and many views of different religions, most of which strongly contradict one another. Therefore, I’d like to explore this and follow these chains of arguments to find an answer.

17/02/19 WEEK ONE:

I’ve set up a meeting with my advisor for the coming week, as my first step at the moment would be to refine my topic question. In order to organise my thoughts as to know what I want my question to cover, I made a document and created a full outline for every philosopher, theory and religion that I wanted to include in my argument.

I’ve also included a lot of the basic explanations and points that I’ve read from the book: A Short History of Philosophy.

For example, to give an overview, this is what I’m focusing on:


Considering God is omnipotent, omnibenevolent and omniscient (THEISM / MONOTHEISM)

The argument of evil stems from if evil exists, either God doesn’t exist, or he isn’t true to one of the three qualities – therefore, not perfect.

If God cant stop it happening, then he cant be truly all-powerful. There are limits to what he can do. But if God is all-powerful and doesnt seem inclined to stop it, how can he be all-good?




  • Introduce with Epicurus question
  • Augustine:
    • Manichaeism solution in earlier days
    • Augustines solution of free-will
  • Other perspectives against free-will:
    • Pascal: JANSENISM
  • Argued against lack of free-will in Boethius theory
    • Solution: Paradox of linear time
  • Introduce DEFEATING argument of optimism by Alexander Pope
    • Lead into Leibniz: Principle of sufficient reason
  • Argue the senselessness of this by Voltaire

25/02/19 WEEK TWO:

AIM:Refining the research question and opening up new areas to explore

During these past few days, I have focused on reading as much as possible around the topic, in order to narrow down my question into specific ideas which can better be discussed. So far, my research questions will be along the lines of the following:

Research Questions:

    • Are free-will and predestination compatible?


  • COMPATIBILISM vs. (uknown)


Compatibilism: The belief that free-will and determinism exist alongside one another, and are mutually compatible despite the claimed inconsistencies.

  • Is the Boethian solution to predestination valid? (compelling)
  • Does Boethian solve the paradox of predestination and free will?


  • Contrasting the X and Boethian solutions within compatibilism
    • Contrast a compatibilist and an incompatibilist
    • Contrast 2 compatibilists and argue whose solution is more compelling


As you can see, they have been written out in several ways each showing the progression we had in our discussion (with my EE supervisor) in narrowing and perfecting the question.


Does argument X provide a compelling compatibilist argument for premise 9? Considering Y incompatibilist rebuttals.


Does the Frankfurtian/Augustinian solution using the Principle of Alternate Realities provide a compelling compatibilist argument for the ninth premise of theological fatalism?

Does the Frankfurts use of the Principle of Alternate Realities rebut Pikes argument for Theological Fatalism?

REJECTIONS OF PAP: Hyper-incompatibilism and Source Incompatibility


  • Does replaced premise 2 with Y provide a more compelling compatibilist argument?


Does a the Causal Closure of the Past reinterpretation of the Principal of the Necessity of the Past strengthen its support for the second premise of theological fatalism?

Does a the Causal Closure of the Past reinterpretation of the Principal of the Necessity of the Past strengthen the argument for theological fatalism?


  • Does X or Y provide a more compelling argument for premise 2.


Between the Ockhamist Solution and the Principle of Causal Closure of the Past, which is a more compelling argument for second premise within theological fatalism?

ISSUE: Will take a long time to explain both theories

Does the Ockhamist Solution rebut Pikes argument for Theological Fatalism?

Does the Principle of Causal Closure of the Past rebut Pikes argument for Theological Fatalism?


Does the Principle of Alternate Realities provide a more compelling compatibilist argument within the ninth premise of theological fatalism or incompatibilist argument supporting open-theism?


  • Incompatibilist approach: to affirm libertarian free will along with the principle of alternate possibilities (premise 9), and to deny the possibility of infallible foreknowledge. This position has recently become well-known in the view called open theism. (Pinnock et al. 1994)


Does the Boethian Solution provide a compelling compatibilist argument to deny the first premise of theological fatalism?


I chose the questions from my few ideas and made simple outlines for all of them to give myself a better idea of what the best question would be to write about. For example, I would need a question that would allow me to consider counterclaims, different and unique arguments, other theories, etc. All whilst not being too broad that there is too much to talk about within the limited word count.


  • Does Frankfurts use of the Principle of Alternate Realities rebut Pikes argument for Theological Fatalism?


Do Frankfurt-Style Cases invalidate the Principle of Alternate Realities argument for Theological Fatalism?


  • Harry Frankfurt is a prominent defender of the compatibilist view of free-will


      1. IDENTIFIES: a flaw in Premise 9: If you cannot do otherwise when you do an act, you do not act freely. [Principle of Alternate Possibilities]
      2. CLAIMS: an agent can act freely, even when she lacks alternate possibilities
        1. an agent is morally responsible for an action only if that person could have done otherwise, however, in the PAP – they can not
      3. AIMS: to drive a wedge between responsibility and alternate possibilities, and to thereby drive a wedge between responsibility and libertarian freedom.
      4. Overall:
        1. those defending libertarian freedom also defend PAP
        2. those attacking PAP, like Frankfurt, defend determinism
      5. FLAWS:
        1. Zagzebski argued a flaw of this: how the standard Frankfurt case would have to be amended to make it a close analogy to the situation of infallible foreknowledge.
          1. Possibly it is not clear in the amended story whether or not Mary has alternate possibilities.What he shows, then, is that alternate possibilities are not always relevant to the possession of libertarian freedom.
        2. two-horned dilemma raised by philosophers such as Widerker, Ginet, and Kane.
          1. Focuses on the connection between the agent’s inclination and the agent’s decision.
            1. This connection can be either follow a deterministic ARGUMENT
            2. Or indeterministic.




        1. Fischer argued for this response that Frankfurt-style cases cannot stand alone, but must be taken in conjunction with other arguments.
          1. These other arguments are supposed to show that causal determinism in and of itself and apart from ruling out alternate possibilities does not threaten moral responsibility.
        2. OR revise the Frankfurt-style cases
          1. creating a case with an explicit indeterministic connection where the agent is still morally responsible without any alternate possibilities. These kind of Frankfurt-style cases do it by incorporating buffer zones that act to eliminate alternate possibilities.
  • Frankfurt cases (also known as Frankfurt counterexamples or Frankfurt-style cases) (presented in 1969) as counterexamples to the principle of alternate possibilities (PAP)
  • Interpret the case where she exercises libertarian free will but does not have alternate possibilities. If Frankfurt cases can be successfully interpreted in this third way, then they can be used to show the compatibility of infallible foreknowledge and libertarian freedom.



  • Does a Causal Closure of the Past reinterpretation of the Principal of the Necessity of the Past strengthen the argument for theological fatalism?


    1. ISSUE: it is not at all clear that pastness per se puts something outside the realm of our causal control. Rather, it is pastness in conjunction with the metaphysical law that causes must precede their effects. If we decided that effects can precede their causes, it is likely that we would no longer speak of the necessity of the past.
    2. ARGUMENT: Zagzebski (2014) argues that the interpretation of the necessity of the past as a purely temporal modality is confused. What people generally mean by the necessity of the past is that the past is causally closed, meaning the past is neither causable nor preventable. Understood that way, the necessity of the past is not a purely temporal modality, and it is not a form of necessity. The categories of causability and non-causability do not correspond to the standard modal categories of the necessary, possible, and impossible. The attempt to assimilate the causal categories to modal categories is a mistake.
    3. SOLUTION: change the argument for theological fatalism from the necessity of the past to be understood as the causal closure of the past.
      1. Must implement Principle of the Unpreventability of the Past:


Initial Reflection

From the start, I knew I wanted to explore metaphysics within philosophy, given my large interest in the subject as well as its abstractedness – as knowing no definite answer could be reached drew my curiosity into how I could write and discuss it in an essay – presenting a challenge but opportunity for growth. I initially showed interest in the theoretical contradictions of God – also allowing excessive comparisons and deep analysis to be taken – making a good EE. From there, I spent time researching online and in books, and speaking with my supervisor to thoroughly narrow down this idea; refined into compatibilist arguments, then theological fatalism, then into a single statement within it – whilst ensuring I had a clear two-sided argument to discuss (yes/no question) between two philosophers with juxtaposing theories – all in ensuring my question wasn’t too open, as my major worry for a philosophy essay was how endlessly you could argue it.

PSE Gender Reflection

The roles, stereotypes, and expectations of men and women in intimate relationships. What were some of these roles and stereotypes?

In relationships, we talked about the everlasting traditional stereotype of men being the bread-winners in relationships, having to take on the role of dominance as a protector. On the flip side, the woman isa housewife ideal – someone who stays home and whos every duty is to abide by every need of their partner. They act like the damsel in distress and aren’t meant to speak out or up-end the man.

To what extent are gender roles and stereotypes prevalent in your life? Gender bias? Privilege?

There are many ways gender ideals play a role in all our lives, whether covalent or obvious. The narrow it down before I express some ideas, these are prevalent in areas such as:

My family:I have a twin brother, so many things become explicitly more prevalent to me consideringour being the same age – such as how our different genders impact us. For example, my parents are clearly more worried for my safety, and sometimes it seems unfair or frustrating – such as when we go overseas, I’m never allowed out on my own yet my brother can go wherever he wants whenever. Furthermore, my mom will comment on things she would never care to mention about my brother, such as how I dress, how late I’m out, the guys I see and talk to, etc. However, in the end, I also understand my mom can and does trust both my brother and myself very highly, but when it comes to having a daughter and simply being a girl – it is the rest of the world and people around you/her that you can’t trust. And even though it seems unfair to put on so many more boundaries, rules, and arguments – it is only given our society today that pushes these into a necessity.

My School:In my school, one of the ways gender stereotypes become most recognizable is given subject choices. For example, giving into these stereotypes: Compsci, DT and physics are boy’s subjects. However, fine art, biology, literature, dance and girl’s subjects. For one gender to take the subject of the other’s stereotype is often laughed about or judged, or people respond with shock or are impressed. This is not necessarily in a bad way, and many people don’t intend to give off this impression – but their reaction always shows the stereotypes built into them are present. This can be demotivating or frustrating at times. For example, my compsci class has 9 boys and 2 girls, and when I tell people I do compsci, they ask me if its weird being in a boy’s subject, or that they are impressed thinking many girls didn’t do it, or pester me to justify why I chose it…

Society: So much about society in this aspect frustrates me that I won’t even attempt to write all or explain all of it. Primarily, I want to discuss safety and dressing. When a woman goes out dressed up, completely put together for a night out – people comment that she’s trying too hard, trying to attract attention, who is she trying to impress? She’s a slut, a try-hard, attention-seeking, air-headed, obsessed with herself and her looks, goes out too much. When a woman goes out with no effort, sweatpants and no makeup, people comment she’s lazy, she needs to try harder, shes never going to get a man like looking like that, she’s a prude. Every level in-between, or no matter what you do or how you dress, you will always receive negative comments. I remember my mom told me this once, she told me whenever we go to the mall together, she notices that the Singaporean men (considering the conservative culture) look at me and stare in a way that makes her and me very uncomfortable… yet the Singaporean women will stare and look disgusted and turn up their noses. It is as if people will always pick out what they can and what they want to, and judge by appearance no matter what you wear – there’s always something to criticize when it comes to women.

Furthermore, I hate that in society, so many boys and men think it’s fine to constantly hit on Girls. I’m going to give an example of when I was in Greece last summer, mostly because I’m using this post as a field to complain now. I absolutely love adventure, and I refuse to stay home. This, of course, bothers my parents because when I’m overseas, I always want to be out. The first night at the dinner table, I told my parents I was going to go for a walk around the town. I was about 5 meters away when my brother came running up to me saying my mom said I had to come back because a group of teenage boys had started following me. The rest of the trip I wasn’t out alone. It became me constantly complaining day and night for someone to come with me, just so that I could walk around town and explore, but could only do it with someone supervising me – albeit my brother would run off whenever he wanted to wherever he wanted. Additionally, you would think this is because they were teenagers, that they will mature – but so many men I’ve met still disgust me with how they act towards women, and I’m scared for any girl in society who comes to think that it is okay or hasn’t learned to stand up for herself. Even the traditional stereotype that women are meant to give in to the needs of a man – that when a girl turns down a guy, she apologizes so much and tries to give excuses and enough reasons. Is this because she has learned that she should feel bad, or because she’s scared of how he will react otherwise? When a guy doesn’t go for a girl who likes him, no one cares – shes being desperate. If a girl doesn’t go for a guy who likes her, she’s a bitch – “give him a chance!” There are so many double standards like this in society between genders, so many hypocrisies and small things that have become so natural that we are used to them and believe them.


During our final activity last week, we were given a role and asked to step forward when answer questions about self-determination, education, safety, etc.

My role was as a closeted lesbian woman, and I ended much further back than many. This, to me, metaphorically tells us how people in society are told that if they work hard no matter where they start, they can reach greatness and succeed. However, this experiment showed that there are so many other factors at play into someone’s success. For example, simply because my gender was a female, I got many fewer opportunities in life and became of my sexuality, I was not accepted by many, I was judged by many and in many instances, it made life much more difficult for me. On the other ends of the spectrum, we saw how someone’s ethnicity played a role, how someone’s job, someone’s family background, someone’s relationship role…

List some personal examples of either experiencing or seeing gender bias or gender privilege.

  • How girls and guys can dress
  • Job and the work field, leadership roles
  • Stereotypes on what their hobbies are. Therefore, parents sign their daughters up for ballet and sons up for boxing. Why are our OWN HOBBIES chosen for us at such a young age?

What can you do within your community to combat negative gender stereotypes or gender bias?

Raise your children right. Teach them what’s right. Give them choices. Empower both genders. Stop stereotyping. Encourage individuals to act freely.

Do you Need to go to College to be Successful?

Every year, many, many stupid people graduate from college – John Green

We live under the illusion of choice. From a young age, the notion that someday we will be packing our bags, teary eyed adolescence saying goodbye to our parents at the steps of our imminent future – of which has regrettably become a moment we subconsciously welcome and adhere to.
The fallacy that to attend university, respectively one of high appraise, is imperative to reaching success – resides at the back of our mind. Even in youth, we decipher this from the world around us; from a constant stream of subconscious cues – strung from movies to an overheard conversation, earnestly congratulating one’s daughter on being accepted into Harvard.

For many, the approaching date of ones college years brings heightened pressure, driving the subsequent misapprehensions that we are working towards a successful future. Never once do we truly stop to consider,do I want to go to college?
Albeit for many, it is somewhat rhetorical – the answer will not taint what is set in stone. However, within this generation, college may no longer be the stepping stone to pursuing success.

First and foremost, nearly 45% of college graduates are working in jobs that do not require a degree – questioning whether we falsely overstate the importance of a $150,000 piece of paper (NYTimes). Furthermore, roughly one-third of millennials admitted regret in going to college (Forbes). So are those anxiety-ridden yearsworththe struggle?

Secondly, attending college itself may ironically be the conflicting factor stunting the pursuit of success. This considering that not all college applications ensure a high-paying job, with 85% of college graduates returning home jobless ( Additionally, these students return tied down by the average $25,000 burden of student loans, which typically (assuming a bachelors degree), takes 21-years of hard work to pay off (usnews). Hence, is the outcome trulyjustifiable?

Finally, as perfectly stated by Dale Partridge:
“Success is about personal development, self-control, integrity, communication skills, relationships, a learner’s heart, and boatloads of uncontainable passion. And most importantly, successful people know we learn by doing, not just learning to do.”

Unfortunately, this creates no easy decision. As regardless, each choice draws a compromise. It remains certain that many jobs require a college degree, especially to qualify in numerous high-paying fields; And as presented through the cliche-likes of movies, college presents the broader opportunity to reinvent yourself, experience new things and meet unforgettable people.
All in all, it may be difficult to stray away from societys propaganda, but finally – you have a choice. There is no black and white; Simply the understanding that a college degree doesn’t guarantee success, and not getting a college degree doesn’t guarantee failure (Forbes).

Andersen, Erika. Do You Really Need To Go To College? Forbes, Forbes Magazine, 1 Nov. 2012,
Rapoza, Kenneth. One In Five Americans Work From Home, Numbers Seen Rising Over 60%. Forbes, Forbes Magazine, 20 Feb. 2013,
Touryalai, Halah. Student Loan Problems: One Third Of Millennials Regret Going To College. Forbes, Forbes Magazine, 23 May 2013,
Nowhere to Go: 85% of College Graduates Will Return Home Jobless. SHTF Plan – When It Hits The Fan, Don’t Say We Didn’t Warn You, 24 May 2011,
Student Loan Expectations: Myth vs. Reality. U.S. News & World Report, U.S. News & World Report,
Partridge, Dale, et al. 4 Brilliant Reasons To Not Go To College. StartupCamp, 5 Jan. 2017,
4 Reasons Why a College Education Is Necessary These Days. The Cheat Sheet, 26 Oct. 2017,

Note: Submitted to The New York Times, under 18 (persuasive editorial feature), under 450 words.