December 10

Expected value = odds of gain x value of gain


Why we make bad decisions

Expected value = odds of gain x value of gain

Why can’t estimate precisely:

  • If something comes to your mind first, you will think that it’s more likely.
  • Compare to the odds that other people get. You are less likely to do it if others are more likely to succeed, even if the odds to you is the same.
  • Compare to the past instead of compare to possibilities.
  • Comparison changes the value of things. But the comparison we make is different base on the current situation.
  • More>less; sooner>later.
  • Get to the future, change your mind.

The surprisingly logical mind of babies

  • Generalization
  • Causal reasoning
  • Baby experiments
  • Randomly sampled or cherry-picked
  • Rich information from sparse data


Describe a time when you made a bad decision because you made one of the errors that Dan Gilbert discussed.

I decided to play games when I actually had to study. This is an error of time changing the expected value. The pleasure of playing games is “now”, and the bad consequences of not doing homework is “later”. Therefore, at the moment I value playing games over doing homework. Of cause I regret the decision later on when the pleasure of playing games becomes the past and the consequences of not doing homework become the present.

December 3

Paper 1 Reflection

What is challenging:

  • restricted time. I only wrote 2 body paragraphs, but I planned to write 3.
  • Trying to understand the underlining meaning of the text. Because I have very limited knowledge for the context.
  • Structure of my ideas. I kind of just write what I thought, but then I realize that I sometimes repeat or I would struggle to find conjunction or connecting sentence.

What is easy:

  • Find meaningful ideas to write about.

How to improve:

  • Record time when doing my homework.
  • take simple notes on the US and Europe history. Or watch some old movies.
  • Just practice.
December 2

Political cartoon – Liza Donnelly

  • In what ways do political cartoons offer multiple perspectives on the ways in which gender roles and identities are socially and politically constructed?

In some male’s perspective, when women wear a short skirt or wear red lipstick, it’s an implicit sex invitation. Some criminals will use these to defend themselves for raping, to say that somehow it’s the victim’s own fault. The society is male-dominated, therefore, the “justice” is on the male’s side, these claims become somehow valid in the society. Women, on the other side, do not have the power to restrict men. So when they want to lower their risk or getting raped, they can only do it by restricting themselves, without realizing that it’s not actually their fault.

  • How, and to what extent, can humor used to convey truth?

Truth is always too heavy, people would not like to think about it. Humor can make truth lighter, provide a common group for people to share their thinking without getting hostile or defensive. Humor also helps an idea to reach a wide range of public and mix it into everyday life.

  • Can anything be understood without an understanding of the historical or political context?

No. Probably would misunderstand or just don’t get it. So unfair. Why are most of our study material so western centered?

December 1

TOK Arts Concept, Sculpture Award

After presenting this to the class:

  • What would you change in your own award, and why?

Another group separate people by age group and access them separately, I think that’s a good idea. Also, our group focus on the intention of the artist, but in the class discussion, I realize that the value of an artwork is actually more dependent on the audience world. An artist might unintentionally create something that deeply connects to the audience and might changes people for the better. So intention should not be an important criterion.

  • What did you realize about others’ awards? Questions you might raise?

So the main “unsolve” questions that repeatedly come up in our discussion are:

How to measure emotion? A lot of us said that good art is able to raise emotion among many people. I believe in oneself, it’s easy to know how strong is one’s emotion, it’s just hard to accurately describe it to others——except using art. So that’s kind of a dead loop.

How to ensure that the judges are unbias? Who should be qualified as an expert? Or if we are getting public voting, which platform? In extension to the public voting, are popular art equal to good art? All these questions finally come together back to the very beginning: What is good art?

But then I wonder if no one knows what is good art, then how does arts award in real life survive? Maybe good art doesn’t have to be “good” universally, or “good” objectively. If I think it’s valuable to me, then it’s valuable to me. Even if it’s meaningless to others, it’s still valuable to me. So art awards are not actually trying to decide what’s good, they are more like the recommendation list on your music app.

November 21

Personality Type: Mediator & Logician

My code is INFP – T or INTP – T. Stands for introverted, intuitive, think/feel, perceiver, and turbulent.

Learn from yesterday, live for today, hope for tomorrow. The important thing is not to stop questioning. —-  ALBERT EINSTEIN

All that is gold does not glitter; not all those who wander are lost; the old that is strong does not wither; deep roots are not reached by the frost. —– J. R. R. TOLKIEN


Descriptions that I feel exactly me:


  • True idealists, always looking for the hint of good in even the worst of people and events, searching for ways to make things better. While they may be perceived as calm, reserved, or even shy, Mediators have an inner flame and passion that can truly shine.
  • Guided by principles, rather than by logic (Analysts), excitement (Explorers), or practicality (Sentinels). Led by the purity of their intent, not rewards and punishments.
  • Fantasy worlds fascinate Mediators in particular, more than others.
  •  Focus their attention on just a few people, a single worthy cause – spread too thinly, they’ll run out of energy, and even become dejected and overwhelmed by all the bad in the world that they can’t fix. (Yeah sorry about that. Some people are soo nice to me but I can’t give them back)
  • Often drift into deep thought, enjoying contemplating the hypothetical and the philosophical more than any other personality type. May start to lose touch, withdrawing into “hermit mode”


  • Logicians pride themselves on their inventiveness and creativity, their unique perspective and vigorous intellect
  • Logician personality type tends to share thoughts that are not fully developed, using others as a sounding board for ideas and theories in a debate against themselves rather than as actual conversation partners. (hahaha -> not debating for my true position —- Mr. Sharry)
  • Appear unreliable but actually okay(I hope so…)
  • don’t expect punctual progress reports
  • Appear to drift about in an unending daydream, but Logicians’ thought process is unceasing. It leads to that they look pensive and detached. (This matches the last point of mediator)
  • Friendly banter can quickly become combative if they believe their logical conclusions or theories are being criticized. (Some of my friends hate this… But I wasn’t wanting them to agree with me, I just became too eager to talk about it)
  • Logicians will opt to simply move on from a topic before it’s ever understood what they were trying to say. (I always thought it’s already understood…….)
  • The restless and pervasive fear of failure. Logician personalities are so prone to reassessing their own thoughts and theories, worrying that they’ve missed some critical points. Overcoming this self-doubt stands as the greatest challenge Logicians are likely to face.


Descriptions that don’t really match me:


  • Speaking in metaphors and parables, and understanding and creating symbols to share their ideas.


  • Nothing they’d be more unhappy about than being “common”.
  • Not understand when people explain their thought processes to Logicians in terms of subjectivity and feeling. (this can be learned with enough effort)
  • Unlikely to understand emotional complaints at all, and their friends won’t find a bedrock of emotional support in them. Much rather make a series of logical suggestions for how to resolve the underlying issue. (I’m the opposite. I think I do not know better than them on how to solve their own issue, the only thing I can do is to make them feel better)
November 17

Identity of women in advertisements

To what extent does the representation of women in advertising reflect or challenge the identity of women?

As the title of this slide suggests, women are sometimes seen as domestic servants. They conveyed the idea that the female gender role is to do housework, like cooking and washing.

The first ad infers that usually women cannot open a ketchup cap, and usually men can, which is true…… The ad represented women in a very stereotypical way: neat makeup, hair-style, very feminine hand pose. Not being able to open a ketchup cap is not a big deal. We all need help from others at some point for something. But this advertisement exaggerates on that and is kind of saying that women are incapable in general. The exaggeration and emphasize are shown by the woman’s surprised expression and the word “women” is underlined. In fact, some men cannot open a ketchup cap and some women can. If we don’t have gender stereotypes in our mind, the text should say “you mean everyone can open it”, it’s going to make more sense.

The second advertisement has the text: “Be a good egg. Treat your daughter for doing the washing up.”  Here it plays a double meaning on “good egg”. It is referring to this chocolate pinata egg that they are trying to sell, but a good egg also is a nice person. Nice in terms of benevolence and compliance, which are traditionally expected traits for females. But should parents really reward their children for listening to orders? Or should they reward their children for being responsible, creative, or brave? Traditionally parents would want their sons to have their own thinking and want the girls to just listen. Because in the old society, women are supposed to listen to the orders given by men. In the workplace, the boss is usually male, and at home, the wife should follow the husband, and children should listen to the father. And why not treat your son for doing the washing up? Or treat your daughter for doing well on the math test? There’s nothing wrong with “treat your daughter for doing the washing up”. It is something worth a treat. But the problem is that the creator of this advertisement actually made this particular choice that typically infers the idea that females should be doing housework. He or she could have written so many other things, but to the creator, this seems to be the most natural thing to write, and that is the problem. The whole underlying society’s expectation for gender roles is completely shown in this advertisement.


November 14

CAS Initial Interview

I want to add on to “the people are so nice” part. There’s a whole story to tell. The performance day of culturama clashed with SEAMC, but I realized it like two months later when I basically already learned the dance. So I was feeling very sad and the SEAMC people were very understanding……. Then my dance leader Ami had to move me out from the system and then find someone else to dance, and they found Ailin. But they let me learn the dance with them. And then the school opened a dress rehearsal performance on Wednesday. I asked Ailin if I can perform on that and she said yes, and Ami had to move me back into the system, like talking to the teacher to explain things. So basically I created a lot of trouble but they all helped me.

October 14

Me too movement

Me too movement

– How do you think the #metoo movement has impacted our society?

Me too movement encourage women to speak up. More women are willing to fight for themselves. It makes more people aware that women are treated unfairly. People start to understand how sexual insult actually affects people’s lives. People realize that it’s a serious issue. It promotes gender equality. In a case of sexual insult, it used to always be the girl’s fault and the male can easily get away with it. Now it’s like if a man is accused of sexual insult, he will be punished even if there’s no proof for if he has actually done it. So society changed a lot.

– Thinking about the IB concepts of identity and representation, how do you think the #metoo movement could potentially change how TV/film/adverts represent men and women?

The media will try to show men and women equally. Will try not to put people into stereotypes. Not to portray women in men’s perspective.

– Which global issues do you think the #metoo movement relates to?

Culture, identity, and community: Me too movement redefines the identity of being a female, and how the community sees women.

Power, politics, and justice: Traditionally men have more power over women. Me too movement wants to change that.

October 7

Pizza Hut advertisements in Singapore and US

Pizza Hut advertisements in Singapore and US

This Pizza Hut advertisement was produced in January 2013 in Singapore, to attract Chinese customers and to increase sales during Chinese New Year. Pizza Hut launched this new type of pizza that has a square hole in the middle. The shape represents the copper coin which is the currency in ancient China. There’s a bowl of copper coins beneath the pizza to prominent this connection. The big text on top expresses the main message of this print: “Let good fortune rain with our tantalising festive flavours.” The advertisements try to convey the idea that their pizza is somehow related to fortune and therefore suitable for the festival. This advertisement only works based on these shared values among Chinese: good fortune is worth celebrating during the festival, especially Chinese New Year; and eating special food is a way of celebrating. This value is shared with the Chinese. In Chinese New Year, people will put a coin in one dumpling, whoever get that dumplings are considered to be really lucky. Traditionally, Chinese don’t eat pizza, most old people still don’t eat pizza. This advertisement shows that pizza can also be connected with Chinese traditions. The background is red, which also represent good luck and good fortune in Chinese culture. For people from other cultures, first of all, they won’t know about copper coins. It might also be weird to celebrate having money. In Chinese culture, a good fortune leads to prosperity, flourishing, thriving and is a reward for working hard. However, many other cultures hold the value that happiness should not be relevant to money, and they would look down on people who values fortune too much. Or some people will find it offensive to adapt pizza to fit Chinese culture. To them, seeing this advertisement might make them less likely to go to Pizza Hut. In conclusion, I believe this advertisement from Pizza Hut is effective in attracting Chinese customers during the New Year, although it might push away other potential customers since Singapore is really diverse.


Pizza Hut is based in Texas, United States. They open restaurants all over the world. This advertisement was made in November 2015. Although this triple treat box comes out globally, it’s $19.99 only in the United States, so by inference, this particular advertisement is specifically for the US. In this advertisement, the “triple treat box” is portrayed as a Christmas gift. There are Christmas tree lights on the bottom and the packaging looks like a gift box, a drawing of a bow tie is on the box. I’m aware that in Asian regions this product is portrayed more like a family meal. The target consumer for this new product is young people in American because usually, only young people order food delivery. They are the targeted audience of this advertisement. This advertisement aligns with the western tradition of giving gifts during Christmas, and those gifts typically come in these kinds of boxes. This advertisement also emphasises the large quantity with low prices, instead of focusing on quality, taste, health or delicacy. The idea that pizzas come in a gift box is also very fun and inviting. From what I know, people sometimes have pizza parties as a dinner together. “The gift you can open any night” and the packaging suggest that this pizza is for delivery. The triple treat box is very good for sharing and building a lively atmosphere. This matches the values of Americans and the values of young people. This group tends not to mind fast food or eating healthy, they want things cheap and fun. People like me, who are not part of that culture, might be picky about only can choose one topping for pizza, and I don’t have a situation to order that much food anyway. To me, it’s the weirdest thing ever to eat a chocolate cookie with pizzas. My culture is not used to having dessert. Also, the black background pulls my feeling a bit heavy and constrained, I wouldn’t choose this colour to celebrate a festival. But in this advertisement, the black colour actually makes the whole thing looks cool. Dark background kind of represents night, which goes with the Christmas light and the overall party theme. It also contrast with the white text. The text uses sections of straight lines to replace curves, and uses all capital letters, creating a strong tone. Capital letters represent yelling. In conclusion, this advertisement makes pizza seems to be a fun gift you can buy for yourself and your family or friends, instead of a boring dinner. It conveys messages and emotions clearly and effectively.