5 Things You Should Know About Biology 1

1: First of all you need to know what a cell is. A cell are these very small things that make up anything biological. For example humans have around 200 types of cells within their body.

2: But there are 2 different types of cells: Plant cells and Animal Cells. Plant mainly re used to make energy for the plant and to keep the structure. All cells have a Cell Membrane, Nucleus, Mitochondria, Cytoplasm and a Vacuole.

  • A Cell membrane acts like a door for the for the cell. It controls what goes in and out of the cell. Which means it is also a semi permeable membrane. A semi permeable membrane is a membrane which has very small holes. Sometimes as small as the size of a single particle so it controls what can go through it. It also creates the shape of the cell.
  • The nucleus of the cell is like the brain of the cell. It controls what happens in the cell and the instructions of what the cell is supposed to do. It holds DNA of the cell which tells the cell when it is supposed to multiply and etc.
  • The Vacuole of the cell is what contains water. In plant cells, Vacuoles are normally very big and in the center. It keeps the structure of the cell. In Animal cells, it also keeps water inside but it doesn’t keep the structure because it is too small. Animal cells normally have multiple.
  • Cytoplasm in the cell is a gel like substance which keeps everything inside the cell in place.
  • Mitochondria in the cell is the power house of the cell. It takes the nutrients and turns it into energy for the cell. Mainly found in animal cells but sometimes in plant cells.

3: Plant cells some extra parts which make it unique compared to animal cells. Animal cells have a Cell Wall and Chloroplast.

  • Cell wall is a the outer most layer of the cell which also keeps the cells structure. Think of it like a brick wall: holds its structure and support for the plant cell.
  • Chloroplast is how plant cells make their food. As plant cells need sunlight. Chloroplast is what turns the solar energy into food and energy.

4: Diffusion is when something of higher concentration moves into an area of low concentration. An example of this is when you spray air freshener in the air. From the area where the air freshener was sprayed, it has a strong smell. But when you go to the other side of the room, you might not smell it until after some time and it might not be as strong as the origin of the smell. An example of diffusion in your body is when you breath in oxygen to your Alveoli in your lungs to the red blood cells in your capillaries. The high concentration of oxygen in your Alveoli diffuses through the organ’s walls into your red blood cells where there would be a low concentration of oxygen.

5: Lastly Osmosis. Osmosis is when a high concentration of water moves through a semi permeable membrane into a low concentration of water creating a net movement. There is 3 types of Osmosis. *Happens through Diffusion*

  • Isotonic is when the concentration is at equilibrium both outside and inside.
  • Hypotonic is when the concentration of water is greater inside the cell and the concentration of solutes is greater is outside of the cell. Which means the water would rush outside of the cell trying to make it an Isotonic.
  • Hypertonic is when the concentration of water is greater outside of the cell and the concentration of solutes is greater inside of the cell. For example is I were to put a single red blood cell in pure water, the water would rush into the red blood cell and the red blood cell would explode.
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