In the book The Odyssey (translated by Emily Wilson), there are several instances where Odysseus has been portrayed as cunning and manipulative, a trait which is represented to be a valued (positive) quality crucial for victory in certain situations. In the Odyssey, Homer incorporates Odysseus’ characteristic of being manipulative as it reflects the behaviour of the Greek Gods, suggesting that Odysseus is the closest mortal to possessing divine powers. In the story, Odysseus receives help from Athena, who favours him for his “power of cunning” a trait which is reflected in both Athena and Odysseus. Besides physical strength, Athena and Odysseus both have intellectual prowess, a quality needed to achieve successful outcomes.
The first incident where Odysseus displayed God-like qualities was in book 8: The Songs of a Poet when he attends the Phaeacian assembly at Alcinous’s court. “But as for myself grant me a rapid convoy home to my own native land. How far away I’ve been from all my loved ones, how long I have suffered!” Odysseus exclaimed at Alcinous and Arete so that they would assist him on his journey. After being accepted by the Phaeacians, men began to display their athletic abilities and Odysseus enjoys watching them race and wrestle. However, when he is asked to participate, Odysseus initially declines the offer, but Euryalus taunts him. Odysseus then demonstrates his god-like qualities by picking up the heaviest discuss and throwing it beyond the marks of all the other men. Odysseus’s display of strength is extremely impressive, Euryalus apologizes for his remarks before giving Odysseus a gift. In this scene, Odysseus shows that his aim to reach home never wavers. He takes advantage of Arete’s caring persona and manipulates the King and Queen into providing him with protection as well as a route back to Ithaca. Additionally, Odysseus sways the Phaeacians with his strength to prove that he is more dominant than the people around him. In this situation, Athena directs Odysseus to the Phaeacians knowing that they would be instrumental to his route back home. However, Athena also uses this situation as an opportunity to fight back Poseidon with whom she had a prolonged confrontation as Poseidon wanted her land Athens. The Phaecians who were supporters of Poseidon would be seen as traitors if they helped Odysseus, which is what they eventually do because of Athena’s manipulation thus, giving both Athena and Odysseus the upper hand that they have always wanted.
In another instance, Odysseus also displays heroic qualities on the island of Circe. In book ten, Odysseus sends a party to investigate Circe’s home, and the goddess proceeds to turn the men into swine. After Eurylochus informs Odysseus of the shocking events and Circe’s magical powers, Odysseus courageously travels to Circe’s home to save his men. “I strapped my silver-studded sword across my back, took up my bow, and told him, ‘Take me there'” (chp10, 263). With the help of Hermes’ magic potion, Odysseus is able to defeat Circe’s spell and forces her to transform the pigs back into men. Odysseus’s cunning, bold behaviour demonstrates his heroic nature as he successfully rescues his crew from the powerful goddess. This shows that manipulative and cunning qualities, do have positive effects as long as they contribute to the objective.
This image reflects when Eurymachus throws a stool at Odysseus but misses as Odysseus insulted of Eurymachus’ own. He hits a servant instead. Just as a riot is about to break out, Telemachus steps in and diffuses the situation, to the consternation of the suitors.
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